Albania, officially known as the Republic of Albania, is a southeastern European state bordering Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Greece, which together form part of the Balkan region. The territory now known as Albania was part of the Ottoman empire from the mid-1400s until it declared independence in 1912 after the First Balkan War. However, Albanian independence was short-lived and offered little political stability to the Albanian people. The borders of the state as drawn by the European powers after the war neglected the demographic realities of the time, leaving large swaths of ethnic Albanians (estimated at as much as 40%) stranded inside the borders of other countries, and leaving many Greeks and Serbs isolated from their respective homelands. This reality contributed to increased tension and violence in the Balkan region for the next 80 years, and quickly proved the downfall of the newly independent Albania. The Albanian monarchy was unable to quell ethnic and religious tensions successfully, and quickly abdicated. In the absence of a powerful central government, various countries invaded Albania through World War I and World War II. At the end of the war Albania officially became a communist state under the direction of Enver Hoxha, whose 40 year reign was marked by a rejection of the west in favor of deepening relations with the Soviet Union. Albania’s economy and social development benefitted greatly from ties with the USSR, but human rights and freedoms were grossly suppressed. In 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union and mounting pressure from within and without, Albania held its first democratic elections and started to normalize relations with the rest of the world. However, financial mismanagement led to a bloody rebellion in 1997, during which the UN sent in peacekeeping forces until law and order could be restored later that year. The political and economic situations of Albania have since stabilized and foreign investment has helped the country become one of the most promising in Eastern Europe.

General Information
Official Name:
Republic of Albania, Republika e Shqipërisë
Albanian, Greek
Geographic Region:
Southern Europe
Geographic Size (km sq):
Year of UN Membership:
Year of Present State Formation:
Online Profiles
Key Statistics & Indicators
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Nominal):
$15.059 Billion
Per Capita Income (PPP Adjusted):
$5,223 (CID)
GDP Growth:
2.24 (%)
Human Development Index (HDI):
Gini Index (Income Inequality):
Economic Grouping:
Developing Country
International Relations
UN Voting Blocs & Caucuses:
Islamic Group
Eastern European Group
Major International & Regional Organizations:
BSEC: Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone
CD: Community of Democracies
CEI: Central European Initiative
CoEu: Council of Europe
EAPC: Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
EBRD: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EITI: Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative
ICC: International Chamber of Commerce
ICRM: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
IDB: Islamic Development Bank
IFRCS: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Interpol: International Criminal Police Organization
IOC: International Olympic Committee
IOM: International Organization for Migration
IPU: Inter-Parliamentary Union
ISO: International Organization for Standardization
ITUC: International Trade Union Confederation
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
OAS: Organization of American States
OIC: Organization of Islamic Cooperation
OIF: Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
OSCE: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PCA: Permanent Court of Arbitration
SELEC: Convention of the Southeast European Law Enforcement Center
WCO: World Customs Organization
WFTU: World Federation of Trade Unions
UN Specialized Agencies & Organizations:
CTBTO: Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization
ICSID: International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
IDA: International Development Association
IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC: International Finance Corporation
ILO: International Labor Organization
IMF: International Monetary Fund
IMO: International Maritime Organization
ITU: International Telecommunications Union
MIGA: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
OPCW: Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNWTO: United Nations World Tourism Organization
UPU: Universal Postal Union
WBG: World Bank Group
WHO: World Health Organization
WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization
WMO: World Meteorological Organization
WTO: World Trade Organization
Bilateral Relations
United Nations Data
Government Sources
UN Mission
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New York, NY 10021
(212) 249-2059/5654/5631/0842
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